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We report two cases of this syndrome and review its clinical presentation, course, and prognosis. She also had necrotizing pneumonia. Serologic findings were similar to those of the first case. She did not improve despite maximum supportive management and died. The Table shows the major laboratory and clinical features of the cases. Levamisole-induced vasculitis was first described in the s. This syndrome produces a characteristic clinical pres-entation of vasculitis in association with a variable pattern of immunologic disturbances.
In a case series of five children treated with levamisole for nephrotic syndrome, all five developed necrosis of their ears, with variable involvement of their cheeks and extremities 1. Levamisole was originally marketed as an anthelmintic agent but was also found to have major immunomodulatory properties.
It induced interferon synthesis and synergized the effect of steroids and other immunosuppressants. However, the drug was withdrawn from the human market in because of serious side effects including leukopenia, agranulocytosis, and skin vasculitis 2. It is still available as a veterinarian deworming drug. Relevant to this manuscript, levamisole has also been recognized as an adulterant in illicit cocaine since 3.
Levamisole is added to cocaine because it potentiates its stimulant effects by inhibiting both monoamine oxidase and catechol- O -methyltransferase activity, thereby prolonging the action of catecholamines in the neuronal synapse and increasing the reuptake-inhibition effect of cocaine. Levamisole metabolites also have a stimulatory effect. Therefore, it adds bulk to illicit cocaine without reducing the native drug's apparent purity, as occurs with other bulking agents such as sugar or lidocaine 2.
Both snorting and smoking levamisole-contaminated cocaine have been associated with the vasculitic syndrome 4. Levamisole-induced syndrome has a characteristic presentation 24. The distinctive vasculopathic purpura typically involves the ears, but purpura can also be observed on the nose, cheeks, extremities, and diffusely. Cutaneous lesions tend to be stellate with a bright erythematous border and necrotic center. This lesion usually resolves spontaneously within a few weeks of drug discontinuation and recurs with subsequent contaminated cocaine abuse.
The half-life of levamisole is 5. The syndrome has a very interesting spectrum of autoantibody findings. However, the specific antigens responsible for generating these positive ANCA fluorescent patterns are not yet clearly defined.The originating document has been archived.
Levamisole Dosage and Gapeworm
We cannot confirm the completeness, accuracy and currency of the content. Levamisole Phosphate is a sterile solution recommended for the treatment of cattle infected with the following parasites. Each mL of solution contains levamisole phosphate equivalent to The maturation of some helminth species may be arrested at pre-adult stage when adult worm populations are heavy.
Cattle that are severely parasitized or maintained under conditions of constant helminth exposure may require retreatment with two to four weeks after the first treatment.
With syringe attached to needle, insert needle through the rubber stopper and withdraw the required dose. A clean, sterile needle should be used for each animal to avoid spreading infection. The mid-neck region is the preferred injection site.
Always use sterile needles and syringes. Non-sterile equipment may cause abscesses at the site of injection. Contents should be used as soon as possible after the seal has been broken. It is recommended that the cap be wiped with alcohol prior to withdrawing solution. Also, skin at injection site should be swabbed with alcohol to avoid infection. Muzzle foam may be observed; however, this reaction will disappear within a few hours.
If this condition persists, a veterinarian should be consulted. Follow recommended dosage carefully. Experience under field conditions indicates that stressful procedures such as vaccination, castration, dehorning, concurrent exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs, pesticides, or chemicals, may increase the risk associated with the use of this product. Such concurrent stress should be avoided when using this product. Do not administer to cattle within 7 days of slaughter for food to avoid tissue residues.
To prevent residues in milk, do not administer to dairy animals of breeding age. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. Available for Android and iOS devices. Subscribe to Drugs. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information - verify here.Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.
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Skip to Content. Time to peak plasma concentration 1. No carcinogenic effect was found in to month studies in dogs. No adverse effects on male or female fertility were noted in rats given oral doses of 2.
Pregnancy— Adequate and well-controlled studies in humans have not been done. Pediatrics No information is available on the relationship of age to the effects of levamisole in pediatric patients. Geriatrics Appropriate studies on the relationship of age to the effects of levamisole have not been performed in the geriatric population. Dental The leukopenic effects of levamisole may result in an increased incidence of microbial infection, delayed healing, and gingival bleeding.
If leukopenia occurs, dental work should be deferred until blood counts have returned to normal and patients should be instructed in proper oral hygiene, including caution in use of regular toothbrushes, dental floss, and toothpicks. Levamisole may also cause mild stomatitis associated with discomfort severe stomatitis may occur during combination therapy with fluorouracil. Side effects are usually mild. Patients who develop leukopenia should be observed carefully for signs of infection.
Antibiotic support may be required. In neutropenic patients who develop fever, broad-spectrum antibiotic coverage should be initiated empirically, pending bacterial cultures and appropriate diagnostic tests.
Special precautions are recommended in patients who develop thrombocytopenia as a result of administration of levamisole. These may include extreme care in performing invasive procedures; regular inspection of intravenous sites, skin including perirectal areaand mucous membrane surfaces for signs of bleeding or bruising; limiting frequency of venipuncture and avoiding intramuscular injections; testing urine, emesis, stool, and secretions for occult blood; care in use of regular toothbrushes, dental floss, toothpicks, safety razors, and fingernail and toenail cutters; avoiding constipation; and using caution to prevent falls and other injuries.
Such patients should avoid alcohol and aspirin intake because of the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. Platelet transfusions may be required. For use in combination with fluorouracil for colorectal carcinoma Fluorouracil therapy should be discontinued promptly if the patient develops stomatitis or diarrhea.
If stomatitis or diarrhea develops during weekly therapy, the next dose of fluorouracil should be withheld until it has resolved. If the leukocyte count remains below for over 10 days despite withholding of fluorouracil, administration of both levamisole and fluorouracil should be discontinued. Usual adult dose [Colorectal carcinoma] Oral, beginning seven to thirty days after surgery, 50 mg base every eight hours for three days, repeated every two weeks for one year.
It is given in combination with fluorouracil mg per square meter of body surface by rapid intravenous push once a day for five days concomitant with a three-day course of levamisole, followed by mg per square meter of body surface once a week beginning twenty-eight days after initiation of the five-day course and continued for a total treatment time of one year.
Fluorouracil therapy should be initiated between twenty-one and thirty-five days after surgery. If levamisole treatment is initiated from seven to twenty days after surgery, fluorouracil should be initiated with the second course of levamisole i. If levamisole is initiated from twenty-one to thirty days after surgery, fluorouracil should be initiated with the first course of levamisole. Strength s usually available U. Surgical adjuvant therapy of large-bowel carcinoma: an evaluation of levamisole and the combination of levamisole and fluorouracil.
J Clin Oncol Oct; 7: Levamisole with fluorouracil for colon cancer. Med Lett Drugs Ther. Procedures for treatment use and sale of investigational drugs established.Forums New posts Search forums. Articles New articles New comments Series Search articles. Reviews New items New comments Latest reviews Search showcase.
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I have always been able to find answers to my questions by searching, rather than making a post. I have several chickens who have had problems with their voices.
Some have almost no voice, or sound hoarse. One in particular has gotten very thin, she gapes as do several others and she eats very little. At times she seems a little depressed, but she still hunts. She closes her eyes a lot during the day. When she does eat, she's picky about what she eats.
She doesn't seem to want to eat much protein. Won't eat tuna, scrambled egg, very little yogurt.
She'll eat rice, the millet seeds in the Scratch, and tomatoes. If she finds a bug, or an earthworm, she will eat that. She hasn't laid in a while, and several of the others haven't laid in a while, either.
I've tried giving her injections of Tylan because of her voice. In fact, have given all of the birds a round due to voices, and what looked like to me, trouble breathing.Detoxing in Jail: Treating Opioid Use Behind Bars - NBC Left Field
As for the hen who is really not doing well, I thought for a while she might have sour crop, so I tried to treat that.There are still an overwhelming amount of people throughout the United States that use cocaine in-spite of the serious mental and physical dangers involved with the abuse of this drug. Cocaine is such a powerful drug that if a person chooses to use the drug to see what it's like, there's a big chance they're going to want to repeat their use because of the intense high they experience.
Cocaine is a stimulant that not only produces a powerful high depending on how it's administered, but also increases a person's level of energy. Many people choose to inject or smoke cocaine because they experience a more intense high faster than if they snort the drug because it reaches the brain quicker.
The intense high they experience may be faster but it only lasts for about 10 minutes compared to snorting cocaine which may take longer to achieve, but lasts for around 15 to 30 minutes.
Either way because the high begins to fade many cocaine users binge and repeat their use after a short period of time to achieve their intense high again. Because cocaine is a very addictive drug it doesn't take long for a person to become addicted to it. People who repeat their use and administer cocaine in binges can become addicted after using the drug just a few times. Crack is the form of cocaine that's smoked and is equally as addictive as the form of cocaine that's snorted or dissolved in water and injected.
We know that no matter what route a person chooses to administer cocaine, there are serious mental and physical health problems that can take place with repeated use. Weight loss is also a harmful effect of cocaine use. Chronic cocaine addicts are quite often underweight and malnourished. As you see, the use of cocaine can not only lead to chronic cocaine addiction but also causes very serious and possibly lethal consequences when abused. The harmful effects listed above are bad enough and you wouldn't think they could get any worse, but they can.
When a person uses cocaine they don't really know what's all been added to the drug when it was illegally produced which can make this already dangerous drug more hazardous and harmful. Levamisole is a pharmaceutical drug that's used for deworming livestock like sheep, pigs and cattle. Unfortunately today that's not all the drug is being used for.
Colombian cocaine producers are adding levamisole to their cocaine possibly to enhance the effects. Cocaine users would never know if the drug they're abusing has been cut with levamisole until it's too late and they begin to develop serious skin reactions. There is also a possibility of a condition developing that affects the bone marrow according to Dr. Noah Craft. Hopefully cocaine users will hear about this and realize just how dangerous this is.
ABC News also talks about levamisole and the serious effects the veterinary drug can have on a person if the cocaine their abusing is cut with the drug. It's unbelievable to think that more than "eighty percent of the country's coke supply contains it". This isn't something new; in SAMHSA posted a public health alert saying if a person uses cocaine to look out for:.
There are many substance abuse centers that provide treatment for cocaine addiction in either inpatient or outpatient settings. Chronic cocaine users do better and are more successful in inpatient settings because they're able to receive more intense therapy in a safe environment away from people or situations that challenge their efforts to stop using. Cocaine Detoxification is the first step a cocaine user has to go through if they're frequent users.
Many treatment centers provide medically assisted detox to help their clients with the uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms experienced during this time. Unfortunately there isn't any medication right now that eliminates intense cravings that are experienced when a person stops using cocaine. This may be another reason inpatient cocaine treatment can be more effective for many people. Treatment centers that provide Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CBT have helped many cocaine users manage their recovery and prevent relapse.
Many outpatient and inpatient substance abuse recovery centers use CBT therapies to help their clients overcome cocaine addiction. Cognitive Behavior Therapy is effective treating addiction no matter what form of dependence a person is suffering from, street drugs, prescription drugs, alcohol, gambling, eating disorders, etc. CBT helps drug users recognize and avoid situations in their life when they would normally use drugs like cocaine and helps them develop effective ways to cope and manage these situations without the use of cocaine or other substances.
Treatment centers that do complete assessments on their clients are able to identify mental health disorders if they're present which makes treatment much more successful.
If the cocaine user also suffers from bipolar disorder, ADHD, major depression or any other mental health illness and it isn't properly diagnosed and treated, their recovery treatment may not be as successful. Cocaine addiction doesn't just disappear after detoxification is completed, the individual has to seek further treatment to understand their addiction and learn ways to manage their recovery and remain drug free. This takes time and help from qualified professionals that understand addiction and what it takes to remain abstinent and manage recovery.
Challenges are faced every day when a person stops abusing drugs like cocaine and without experienced professional help and support, it's nearly impossible to avoid relapse.Medically reviewed by Drugs.
Last updated on Mar 10, Levamisole is used with another cancer medicine fluorouracil to help make it work better against cancer of the colon.
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make.
For levamisole, the following should be considered:. Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to levamisole or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.
Studies on levamisole have been done only in adult patients, and there is no specific information comparing use of levamisole in children with use in other age groups. Many medicines have not been studied specifically in older people. Therefore, it may not be known whether they work exactly the same way they do in younger adults or if they cause different side effects or problems in older people.
Although there is no specific information comparing use of levamisole in the elderly with use in other age groups, levamisole has been used in elderly patients and is not expected to cause different side effects or problems in older people than it does in younger adults.
There are no adequate studies in women for determining infant risk when using this medication during breastfeeding.
Weigh the potential benefits against the potential risks before taking this medication while breastfeeding. Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur.
In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking levamisole, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below.
The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive. Using levamisole with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you.